why was france a threat to elizabeth in 1558

Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mother's room inside Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex. Importantly too, at different points these plots were orchestrated or sponsored by the Pope and Spain and were dependent on the support of English Catholics to work, demonstrating the increasing Catholic threat to Elizabeth, internationally and domestically. The reasons for, and significance of, the Revolt of the Northern Earls, 156970. Can I give a retake in the feb/march if I had given my exams in the may/June series. They were also fearful that France would rekindle their loyalty to Scotland and threaten England from the north and south together. The death of Mary in November 1558 took England out of the equation. Calais was a French port which the English had occupied and was responsible for 80% of wool exports. Humiliatingly, Elizabeth had to confirm the loss of Calais, which had been an English possession since 1347. On the show, Francis has a tumultuous relationship with his wife, Mary, and their inability to conceive a child is a major source of conflict between them. Coronation: 15 January 1559, Westminster Abbey. 2. Ironically the simple accession of Elizabeth in 1558 made any desire for a settlement so much more difficult. Many reasons led to discontent between Spain and England. "the threat of invasions was Elizabeth's main problem when she became queen in 1558" - 2nd explanation. [This last point is important and often students dont embrace the anomalies for fear that it will undermine their argument. The plots were often uncovered due to Elizabeths informants and Walsinghams highly efficient spy network. he could also overthrow her. A war would have to involve invasion because after 1558 England had no possessions in mainland Europe (Calais had been lost in 1558). - send 2000 to rebels. A number of Catholic plots to remove Elizabeth in the 1570s and 1580s had his involvement although he was reluctant and half-hearted in their execution. Anne Boleyn (L), Henry VIII (C) and Elizabeth I (R) Elizabeth was born on 7th September 1533 to Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII. [A range of examples and wide-ranging knowledge really help explore the extent of this problem facing Elizabeth.]. The Council was controlled by southern Protestants and this caused resentment by the northern nobles. Elizabeth would receive a share of the privateers profits and as Englands financial situation was poor at the time, this proved to be an incredibly important source of income for the Queen. There were several factors that influenced Queen Elizabeths decision to sign the Treaty of Nonsuch including: Elizabeth believed in Divine Right and due to this, she didnt want to remove King Phillip as the ruler of Netherlands. Elizabeth's legitimacy was one of many problems that Elizabeth faced when she became Queen in 1558. The plot was uncovered by Sir Francis Walsingham, who intercepted and read Babingtons letters to Mary. France was to be a constant thorn in the side of Elizabeth I throughout her reign. This plot was supported by the Pope and King Phillip II, who agreed to provide troops for a Spanish invasion. Student / 14-16 / However, the Dutch had always governed themselves. By the end of Elizabeths reign, the navy was also playing an important role in settling up an English colony in North America. "the threat of invasions was Elizabeth's main problem when she became queen in 1558" - conclusion. Elizabeth, however, did not sign the death warrant until February 1587. Before she came to the throne her mother Mary of Guise ruled Scotland while she remained in France married to the French prince Francis. The Spanish had a greater army and Dudleys army was significantly smaller. The English also had better tactics that were more effective. - Leith blockade. Working for the British, Native American Manteo was placed in charge of the expedition by Sir Walter Raleigh. Roberto di Ridolfi was an Italian banker who played a small role in the Revolt of the Northern Earls. LS23 6AD The plot was uncovered whilst Ridolfi was abroad (he never returned). The most important reason however was a combination of Marys arrival and the Popes interference. We and our partners use cookies to Store and/or access information on a device. This meant her ability to govern from the outset was immediately hampered. The Spanish attempted to regroup at Gravelines, however, the weather made it impossible for them to reform their defensive crescent formation which opened up an opportunity for the English to intercept and attack. Even though a truce was decided, there was still a constant threat from the Scots and French to the English security . Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland was part of the Rising in the North in 1569. On the death of Mary and the accession of Elizabeth, many hard-line Protestants returned from mainland Europe (where they had fled for their own safety during the reign of Mary) in the full expectation that they were returning to a state where Protestantism was the one and only . This helps to explain why Elizabeth had to deal with so many plots, the intention of which was to replace Elizabeth with Mary. August 8th: Battle of Gravelines fireships caused the Spanish fleet to scatter. Legitimacy of succession: The Pope did not recognise Henry VIII's marriage to Anne. As Catholics do not believe in divorce it means that the marriage between Henry and Catherine was never dissolved, and therefore, the marriage with Anne never happened, and as a result of this Elizabeth was an illegitimate child and had no right to the throne of England. However, the Act also established a national poor rate, made JPs (Justices of the Peace) keep registers of the poor and gave towns and cities the responsibility to find work for the able-bodied poor. At the beginning of her reign, an obvious candidate for Elizabeth to marry was her half sister's widow, Phillip of Spain. This partly explained why harsher treatment of Catholics occurred soon after, led by the Council of the North. Elizabeth therefore committed actions that helped undermine the Spanish whilst ensuring England did not become fully embroiled in the conflict. Register for free, Home / In this sense, the colonisation of Virginia should be understood in relation to the wider conflict with Spain. Throckmorton was tortured and although he confessed, was then killed. A very detailed response which demonstrates excellent subject knowledge and reaches a clear judgement based on justifiable criteria. Suitable for the Edexcel GCSE History (9-1) course. The Netherlands had been part of the Spanish empire since the 1550s. This delayed the Spanish attack and gave the English more time to prepare (hence the attempted invasion of the Armada one year later in 1588). Explain why Elizabeth faced many problems upon ascending to the throne in 1558 . She was the last monarch of the Tudor period. King Phillip II had been married to Queen Mary I of England and the two had been allies in a war against France in the 1550s. In 1558, the same year Elizabeth became Queen of England, a number of Good explanation and link back to the question here at the end of the paragraph.]. Northern Rebellion led by Earl of Westmorland. He was the son of King Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour.Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long", with joy and relief. The Student Room and The Uni Guide are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. She was reluctant to execute Mary as she was Queen of Scotland and she believed in Divine Right that rulers were sent by God to govern their country. By August 1986, Walsingham had gathered enough evidence to dismantle the plot. Why was the Catholic threat greater by the 1580s? Drake himself described the raid as Singeing the King of Spains beard. 2002-2023 Tutor2u Limited. [Blog], Medicine Community Feedback and Suggestions, 2023 entry A100 / A101 Medicine fastest and slowest offer senders, Borders & Enforcement, Immigration Enforcement - Immigration Officer June 22, Official University of the Arts London 2023 Applicants Thread. Most of the fleet was then destroyed by storms. Elizabeth couldn't restore authority and teachings of the Pope. By studying this week, students should have an understanding of: . The leading figure involved in the plot was Francis Throckmorton, a young Catholic man who carried messages between Mary and Catholic conspirators abroad. Anne was executed less than three years after Elizabeth's birth. She changed the church back to Anglican and it has been the official . Copy. However this union was appalling because he was Catholic was married to the previous queen, and a foreigner. No Payment details required and completelyRisk Free. Mary, Queen of Scots cousin (the French Duke of Guise) intended to invade England, free Mary, overthrow Elizabeth and restore Catholicism. Marriage and the Succession She was expected to marry and produce an heir for the Tudor line but she wanted to choose the right person and not anger anyone. The Armada sailed up the Channel in a defensive crescent formation which used the large armed galleons to protect the weaker supply ships and infantry ships. After her death in 1558, her half-sister Elizabeth I preceded the throne and she tried to re-establish Puritanism in England. The negotiations dragged on for four years with Elizabeth never giving a firm answer and Charles refusing to give up his Catholic faith. [A clear summary of the arguments, once more making the link between Mary, the Pope and Catholic interference.]. The Spanish Fury united both the Dutch Catholics and Protestants, who demanded in response to the violence: 1) the expulsion of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands 2) political freedom and 3) an end to religious hostility via the Spanish Inquisition. Anyone refusing to pay poor rates could be imprisoned and officials failing to organise poor relief could be fined. This established a new Anglo-Scottish peace and also reconfirmed the agreement at Cateau-Cambresis. This meant that England had suffered economically as they were not generating any income from Calais. Elizabeths legitimacy was one of many problems that Elizabeth faced when she became Queen in 1558. Most of the new ships were being built in the deepwater port Portuguese port of Lisbon which was protected by strong fortifications. Spain depended on large ships which were heavy and difficult to handle whereas the English built long, narrow ships that were faster and easier to handle. Here is a summary timeline of key events for students taking Early Elizabethan England (1558-88). 1534 Duke of Angoulme (third son of Francis I)c1542 A Prince of Portugal1543 Son of the Earl of Arran 1544 Prince Philip (Philip II) 1547 Sir Thomas Seymour 1552 Prince of Denmark 1553 Courtenay, Earl of Devonshire 1554 Philibert Emanuel, Duke of Savoy 1554 Prince of Denmark 1556 Prince Eric of Sweden 1556 Don Carlos (son of Philip II)1559 Philip II 1559 Prince Eric of Sweden 1559 Son of John Frederic, Duke of Saxony 1559 Sir William Pickering 1559 Earl of Arran 1559 Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel 1559 Robert Dudley 1560 King Eric of Sweden 1560 Adolphus, Duke of Holstein 1560 King Charles IX 1560 Henry, Duke of Anjou 1566 Robert Dudley 1568 Archduke Charles 1570 Henry Duke of Anjou 1572- 1584 Francis, Duke of Alencon, later Anjou. One factor Elizabeth had to face, which was seen as a huge disadvantage, was her gender. - Invasion was a major threat because of the power of the countries France and Spain. Moreover, to raise money Elizabeth would have to make the immediately-unpopular decision of raising taxes, the permission for which would need to be granted by parliament (which, in turn, could then make further demands on Elizabeth). In order to marry Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII had to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Phillip was warned against this mission but believed he was on a mission from God. The plan was then for the combined forces would then sail across the Channel to England under the protection of the Armadas warships. The Protestant Elizabeth certainly faced difficulties upon becoming Queen with regard to legitimacy, especially from English Catholics and the wider Catholic world. 2002-2023 Tutor2u Limited. The news of the rebellion caused widespread. Spain had colonies in North and South America and Englands trade with them was very profitable, but foreigners needed a license to trade there. Describe two features of Mary Queen of Scots' threat to Elizabeth I. One way in which Mary was central to the Catholic threat was through her part in various plots to overthrow Elizabeth. Mary was forced to flee following her unsuccessful attempt to win back her Scottish throne. 1559 - cateau cambresis, menacing position of french in scotland. In the eyes of the Church of England, Henry and Catherine were divorced and then Henry could marry Anne. Tel: +44 0844 800 0085. The plan was that 130 ships (equipped with 2431 guns) would sail along the Channel to the Netherlands, where they would pick up 27,000 troops, led by the Duke of Parma. Nevertheless, the answer has sustained conceptual focus and is wide-ranging in its analysis. It had to deal with Irish . West Yorkshire, This was because the society was very patriarchal, male dominated, meaning that she . They had enjoyed religious freedom under Queen Mary, Elizabeth's sister, and they were now being. In 1568 Elizabeth also controversially stole gold from Spanish ships (which was loaned from Genoese banks to fund the Spanish army, against the Dutch rebels) that were staying at English ports. In 1581, Protestant rebels in the Netherlands declared independence from Spain and established a Dutch republic. The execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, finally removed the on-going threat at home from Catholics who wanted to replace Elizabeth with her. Cecil was a master of Renaissance statecraft, whose talents as a diplomat, politician, and administrator won him high office and . Henry believed that Elizabeth wanted France to go to war with Spain while England looked on and would benefit from the probable weakening of both. When Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558 her people were divided by religion. King Philip of Spain sent an. In April 1587, Drake sailed to Cadiz and began attacking the anchored ships there. Describe two features of Elizabeth's religious settlement 1559 5. One reason Dudley failed was that he wasnt a talented general or tactician. The Spanish Armada sailed in 1588 and was completely defeated by the English. This peace treaty between England and France ended the war inherited by Elizabeth from her half-sister Mary I, who went to war alongside her Spanish husband Philip II in 1557. English Catholic Francis Throckmorton was the link of communication within this plan. In 1580, she received treasure from Sir Francis Drake from his exploits which was worth more than all the rest of her income for that year put together. With the seemingly imminent war between Spain only a matter of time, Elizabeth was determined to rid England of the enemy within. VAT reg no 816865400. They began to revolt against the Spanish. As the Spanish had lost these to Drake, they were forced to make their barrels from unseasoned wood, which couldnt preserve food or water very well. England had lost the last of her territories in France during the reign of Mary, when Calais was lost. As King Phillip II ruled the Netherlands, he had control over the access to these vital Dutch ports and he could, therefore, limit English access. Topic guides / Her aggressive stance on some issues led to further problems such as those faced in Ireland. This was one of the more serious courtships of Elizabeth's reign. - large religious threat as shows the chance of invasion increased due to the fact Spain and France could unite together against England. King Phillip tried to send two further Armadas in the 1590s however, both were unsuccessful. Many northern nobles were still committed Catholics and wanted to see the restoration of Catholicism under a Catholic monarch. The Act of Supremacy The queen's reassertion of control over religious matters was achieved via the April 1559 CE Act of Supremacy, once more closing the door on the Pope. Dedicated to. The harsh weather conditions made it impossible for the Spanish fleet to return to the Channel after the battle of Gravelines. This time, however, the evidence gathered by Walsingham was enough to persuade Elizabeth to put Mary on trial. The conspirators including Babington were all. The failure of the colonisation was due to: the resistance of the Native Americans; conflict amongst the English settlers (who collectively had the wrong mix of skills to make the settlement a real success); the loss of supplies via the damage incurred on The Tiger and the fact that the voyage set off too late for crops to be planted (causing dependence on the rightfully suspicious Native Americans). There was a very real risk that he could form an alliance with other Catholic powers such as France and Spain and invade England. Mary's Catholicism and previous alliance with France increased the threat of a French invasion in support of her, which threatened the stability of Elizabeth's kingdom. This caused panic among the Spanish sailors, who cut their anchor cables and broke their defensive formation as they headed for the open sea. There are 4 main exam boards which are AQA, Edexcel (Pearson), OCR and How To Revise For GCSE Psychology The ultimate step-by-step guide for students, teachers and private students. The invasion failed, however. 1585 Treaty of Nonsuch This significantly committed Elizabeth to support the Dutch rebels directly against the Spanish. Apply for student finance without a bank account? (*fragmentary*). Another serious contender was Francis, Duke of Alencon, later Duke of Anjou. Dudleys campaign in 1586-1587 proved to be unsuccessful and he suffered heavy defeats at the hands of the Spanish general, the. They were not able to do this because the English used their greater manoeuvrability to stay out of range while firing broadsides (massive barrages of cannonballs) that could sink the Spanish ships. By 1572 Protestant ideas had spread in the Netherlands and Protestant Dutch rebels began a campaign for independence from Catholic Spain, leading to the Dutch Revolt. Queen Elizabeth had become aware of this plan and in 1587, sent her most successful privateer, Sir Francis Drake, to spy on Spanish preparations and attack their ships and supplies. In 1595 Elizabeth had to deal with a rebellion in Ireland led by Tyrone and O'Donnell. Te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, and "their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand . However, there were other challenges facing Elizabeth. He would often return with huge amounts of treasure for Queen Elizabeth. Elizabeth had also claimed all the profits from copper mines that were discovered in his estates which meant he lost a significant amount of money too. Company Reg no: 04489574. Spains naval and military strength was much greater than Englands at the time, so Elizabeth was reluctant to do anything that could damage their already fragile relationship and lead to open war with Spain.. Moreover, the brazenness of these revolts was further helped by the blessing of the Pope, whose directives on recusancy and overthrowing Elizabeth were obeyed by many Catholics both domestically and internationally. Queen Elizabeth showed no mercy to the rebels and the Earl of Northumberland along with 400 rebel troops were executed while the Earl of Westmorland fled abroad. migration? Parents: Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. VAT reg no 816865400. First English colony in Virginia established. [The importance of dates and chronology help demonstrate the long- term impact of Marys presence, which helps support the initial judgement.]. Seeing Spain as a threat, Elizabeth tried to form an alliance with France. They never met with the Duke of Parma and were forced to sail around the British Isles. Tel: +44 0844 800 0085. . Boston Spa, VAT reg no 816865400. Anthony Babington, an English Catholic, wrote to Mary about the plot.

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